I have just compiled Rosetta 2.3.0 on a fresh Ubuntu 8.04 (Hardy Heron) installation. Installing the “build-essential” package from the repositories will not work. This installs gcc-4.2 and g++-4.2; compiling with make or scons will fail. Make ends with some odd “invalid instantiation” error and scons will not even recognize version 4.2 of gcc (it raises a python KeyError). Version 4.1 does work, and I didn’t see it in your list of compilers you tried.
Here’s how I got the build to work:
sudo apt-get remove build-essential gcc-4.2 gcc-4.2-base g++-4.2 g++-4.2-base
sudo rm /usr/bin/gcc /usr/bin/g++ # If sym-links to gcc-4.2 and g++-4.2 are present
sudo apt-get install gcc-4.1gcc-4.1-base g++-4.1 g++-4.1-base scons zlib1g-dev
sudo ln -s gcc-4.1 gcc
sudo ln -s g++-4.1 g++
scons rosetta++ mode=release
In retrospect, there was no need to remove gcc-4.2. Changing the links should have been sufficient. I hope this belated reply works for you.